We use the Z-inspection® methodology, considering the following perspectives:
a) Social ( relevant for policy makers, users/patients and society at large );
b) Domain specific (relevant for key stakeholders in health care);
c) Technology specific (relevant for Machine Learning engineers).
In context of Z-inspection®, we call these perspectives Layers. It is possible to have more layers. The reason to introduce layers is to highlight and address that normally within each layer different culture, behavior, procedures and terms exist.
This also means that a team composed of experts from each layer need to ensure that the communication and collaboration works. It is important to note that also between experts of the same layer this should be checked.
In order to do so, a process of Concept Building should be performed. This process is a continuous process and should be documented, e.g. in form of a log and/or at least as a set of definitions and/or mappings/translations between concepts of different layers.
One of the goals of the Z-inspection® is to identify Ethical Tensions (E) – values can be in conflict. In the domain of health care, for example input variables might be skipped in order to avoid discrimination even if this can have negative impact to the accuracy.
In many cases during inspection it is possible to identify issues and decisions with an unclear impact or concerns on the ethical values. We call these issues Flags (F).
The core of the Z-inspection® is an iterative process, where Paths (P) of investigations are defined, assigned to teams and executed in order to better understand the ethical tensions, flags and their consequences. As a result of execution of these paths, new ethical tensions or flags might be defined, and/ or previous ones might be further substantiated or deleted, hence it is a continuous process.